|USING A SCHEDULED ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TECHNOLOGY TO INCREASE CATTLE PRODUCTION|
|News - Technology Info|
|Rabu, 11 Maret 2015 09:39|
Aceh province is an area with a good prospect for livestock development in the future. Physiographic and local socioculture allow the development of farm businesses with a professional management so that it can further be developed into a more modern, productive, and efficient farm. Nonetheless, Aceh government still faces some problems in the field such as low population of cattle and low genetic quality of cattle due to still many conventional farms with poor breeding technology and low skill of farmers.
To overcome these problems, the government has attempted to engage farmers in a development program namely a scheduled artificial insemination technology held by Aceh Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology (Aceh AIAT). This program has some advantages for the farmers/stockbreeders such as:
Increasing the population and the genetic quality of cattle in order to meet the need of region as well as to reduce the import of meat in term of achieving meat self-sufficiency.
Increasing the farmers’ income and the employment opportunities.
Developing an integrated carrying capacity from the region to other sub-sectors, particularly in improving the quantity and quality of fodder.
Improving the resources and the environmental condition.
This technique has proven its efficiency in increasing the number of population as well as improving the genetic quality of cattle. In addition, a socio-cultural approach is considered essential as well in changing the attitude, behavior and work patterns of farmers. Some problems may arise in the field such as the lack of budget, resources, and institutional agribusiness farmers, but the goverment will always help to find solutions to the farmers’ problems.
“A Scheduled Artificial Insemination Technology”
One of the technology approaches than can be used to increase the population and the genetic quality of cattle is Artificial Insemination (AI) or mating sperm injection namely the inclusion of male cow’s cement into the female cow’s genitalia by using insemination tools (human-made). A scheduled artificial insemination is much preferable among the stockbreeders as the embryo, cycle and superior calves in the birth season has been timely set with the environmental conditions resulting to an efficient breeding time and a large number of calf births.
A scheduled artificial insemination technology has some advantages as follows:
Repaire the genetic quality of cattle.
The success of this scheduled artificial insemination program is greatly influenced by the condition of the female cows as acceptors, the sperm quality of male cows, the inseminators’ skills, and the estrus precision of acceptors. Before doing the insemination, it is important to carefully select cattle with these following criteria:
Estrus synchronization is the synchronization of all cattle to be in a state of lust in order to create a uni-breeding season in large quantities resulting in a large number of calves birth in the same time as well. Estrus synchronization commonly uses Gonadothropin (progstaglandin F2α (PGF2α) hormone)).
The female cows with corpus luteum (CL) in the ovariums will be receive a single dose of prostaglandin F2 α injection causing the rise of estrus in 48-96 hours after the injection while those with no CL in the ovariums will receive twice injections of F2 α progstaglandin hormone with an interval about 11-12 days from the first time of hormonal injection. For female cows which receive progstaglandin F2 α hormone injections (Lutalyse) made in French or Hong Kong with the dose of 5 ml/cow through intra-muscular injection, the estrus is estimated to arise in 60 -72 hours after the hormone injections.
2. Observation of Estrus
Observation of estrus toward the female cows is scheduled on the second day after 30 hours of progstaglandin F2α hormone injections. The cattle must be placed in byres to make farmers easy to observe the first, middle, and final condition of estrus. The observation time should be done at 6:00 to 07:00 pm in the morning, at 12:00 to 13:00 pm at noon, and at 20:00 to 21:00 pm at night. The duration required to observe the rise of estrus is about 10-15 minutes per observation time.
3. A Scheduled Artificial Insemination
A scheduled artificial insemination is applied to female cows which are in a state of lust after receiving progstaglandin F2α hormone injections. This artificial insemination is best conducted between 9-20 hours after cattle estrus is aroused.
A scheduled artificial insemination is not only able to improve the genetic quality of cattle, but also able to improve the breeding productivity, the farming system, and the income of farmers/stockbreeders.
Hafez ESE, Hafez B. 2000. Anatomy of male reproduction. Inside: Reproduction in Farm Animals. 7th ed. Baltimore: William & Wilkins Lippicott. P: 3-12.
Toelihere MR. 1993. Inseminasi Buatan pada Ternak. Bandung: Angkasa.