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Senin, 27 Maret 2017 11:06

Author :  Firdaus, S.P., M.Si (Young Agricultural Extension)

Hypothenemus hampei is one of the most harmful pests which causes the decline in production and low quality across the world where coffee is cultivated.

Kalshoven (1981) classified the taxonomy of coffee berry corer into:

Kingdom : Animalia

Phylum : Arthropoda

Class : Insect.

Ordo : Coleoptera

Family : Scolytidae

Genus : Hypothenemus

Spesies : Hypothenemus hampei

Biology dan Ecology of H. hampei

H. hampei grows through a complete metamorphosis with some stages; egg, larva, pupa, and imago or adult insect. The females – which are going to lay eggs – will create holes with a diameter of 1 mm at the coffee berry. These eggs usually hatch in 5-9 days. The color of larva is white with a brown head and a length of 0.7–2.2 mm and a width of 0.2–0.6 mm. Females have two larvae stages and males only one. They have strong mandibles, and their larval phase lasts 10 to 26 days. The pupae are yellowish, with a length of 0.5–1.9 mm.


After the post-harvest time, this insect population will be decreasing due to food scarcity. Female insects are the most dominant ones in the population as they have longer lifespan than males. In this condition, the ratio of males and females can be 500:1. (Wiryadiputra, 2007).

Attack Symptoms of Coffee Berry Borers

Initially, H. hampei beetles attack hard endosperm of the coffee berries. They may also attack the fruit which is not hard yet by drilling the seeds to get food and then leaving them (Baker et al., 1992). If this occurs, the fruit will not develop; the color will change to reddish yellow and eventually fall off. The attack on such unripe seeds would decrease the quality of coffee because the seed core is perforated and filled with eggs (Irulandi et al., 2007). Defective coffee berries negatively affect the composition of their chemical contents, especially reducing the caffeine and fructose resulting to poor coffee taste. (Tobing et al., 2006).

The maturation from egg to imago takes place in the hard part of the ripe seeds. These insects may die prematurely in the endosperm of the seeds once the necessary substrates are not available. The harvested coffee berries are the best place for their breeding. We can find 75 of these insects live in the same seed. They are even able to survive for more than a year if placed in a seal container (Kalshoven, 1981).

H. hampei usually attack a shady and humid coffee plantation. If there is no control or prevention, they can attack the whole plantation. In an old and dry seed, we may find more than 100 of H. Hampei insects (DPP, 2004). Females mostly breed in ripe green seeds which will soon turn red. They make holes and lays eggs inside. When these eggs hatch, larva will eat the berries from the inside causing the seeds die (USDA, 2002).

Spreading Patterns

The coffee berry borers originally come from Africa. They are spread to Brazil, Guatemala, and Asia (including Indonesia). These pests – which belong to Coleoptera (Ordo), Scolytidae (Family) – only attack the coffee berries (Vega, 2002). Their colour are commonly black or shiny brown (Susniahti et al., 2005).

H. hampei did their first attacks in Central Africa. The annual report showed that the yield loss caused by this pest was more than $ 500 million. They can easily be found in a dark and shady coffee plantation. This condition seems to be related to their origin, namely Africa which has tropical forests under humid condition, and Brazil with shady and foggy coffee plantations.

Because the phenology of coffee plantations vary according to altitude, rainfall, temperature, soil types, varieties, coffee clones and agronomic practices, the solution of this problem can differ from one region to another region. As Sumatra’s coffee plantations are considered wet with climate types A and B (based on Schmidt and Ferguson’s climate types theory), it will be difficult to implement a sanitation system to end the life cycle of this pest since coffee plants producing fruit throughout the year. In highland areas (more than 1200 m above sea level), the development of these insects are difficult so the intensity of their attack is low.

Environmental Influence

The development of H. hampei is strongly affected by the temperature and the availability of coffee berries. They can live at 15C-35C temperature. The optimum temperature for eggs is 30C-32C, and 27C-30C for larva, pupa, and adult insects. Female insects can drill the berries at the temperature of 20C-33C, but they are unable to drill at the temperature of 15C and 35C. Even if they are able do so, they cannot breed nor lay the eggs inside the holes. (Jaramilo et al.,2009).


Irulandi, S., Rajendran, C. R., Chinniah dan Samuel, S.D. 2007. Influence of weather factors on the incidence of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) in Pulney hills, Tamil Nadu. Madras Agric.J. 94 (7-12) : 218-231.

Jaramillo, J., Olaye, A. C., Kamonjo, C., Jaramillo, A., Vega, F. E., Poehling, M., Borgemeister, C. (2009) . Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect. Pest. Plos One. 4 (8): 64-87.

Kalshoven, L. G. E. 1981. Pest of Crops In Indonesia, Revised & Translated by P. A. Van Der Laan. PT. Ichtiar Baru-Van Hoeve, Jakarta

[PCW] Pest Cab Web. 2002. Pest of the Month: Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei). [10 Maret 2015].

[PPKKI] Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia. 2006. Pedoman Teknis Budi Daya Tanaman Kopi. Indonesia Coffee and Cacao Research Institute Jember, Jawa Timur

Rubio, J.D., Bustillo, A.E ., Valelezo, L.F., .Acuna, J. R. dan Benavides. P. 2008. Alimentary Canal and Reproductive Tract of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytidae). Neotropical Entomology 37 (2) : 143-151.

Susniahti, N., Sumeno, H. dan Sudrajat. 2005. Ilmu Hama Tumbuhan. Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung.

[USDA] United States Department of Agriculture. 2002. Plants Profile for Coffea Arabica L. [ 20 Juni 2012].

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